BE WARNED: THIS POST MIGHT UPSET SOME READERS
A recently published research report has caused a bit of a fuss in the media, and I have been contacted by a lot of concerned readers regarding this particular study.
It deals with some chemicals – which can be found in everyday products – that may be having a negative effect on biological processes that are related to Parkinson’s disease – specifically, the normal functioning of the mitochondria (the power stations of each cell).
In today’s post we will discuss the new research, what the chemicals do, and whether the Parkinson’s community should be concerned.
It is something that most of us take completely for granted in the modern world. A product that sits in our bathroom, by the sink or on a shelf, and 2-3 times per day we stick some of it in our mouth and brush it around a bit. Given the well ingrained habit of repetitively ingesting of the stuff, we have little trouble with the idea of switching brands or trying new variations (“Oooh look, this one will make your teeth whiter. Let’s try it”).
I mean, come on – it’s just toothpaste. It’s safe, right?
It probably won’t surprise many of you to learn that the composition of toothpaste has changed quite a bit over the years, but what might amaze you is just how many years are involved with that statement:
Egyptian toothbrush. Source: Nathanpaarth
The Egyptians recognised the importance of looking after one’s teeth at a very early stage. Apparently they had a lot of trouble with their teeth because their bread had grit in it which wore away their enamel. As far back as 5000BC, they had a form of toothpaste that they used to clean their teeth. It was a mix of powdered ashes of ox hooves, myrrh, powdered and burnt eggshells, and pumice (Source: Wikipedia). The Greeks, followed by the Romans, improved on the recipes (by adding abrasive ingredients such as crushed bones and oyster shells – delightful, huh?), but it wasn’t until after World War I that the modern day pre-mixed toothpastes became popular.
The cavity fighting chemical, Fluoride, was first added to toothpastes in the 1890s, and in 1908 Newell Sill Jenkins (an American dentist) invented the first toothpaste that contained disinfectants. It was called Kolynos (from the Greek words Kolyo nosos (κωλύω νόσος), meaning “disease prevention”).
Following the advent of Kolynos, most toothpaste companies added antiseptic and disinfectant agents to improve the quality and effectiveness of their product. Being offered a tooth cleaning product with magical antibiotic properties seemed to reassure consumers that they were buying something that might actually work. And this led to more and more chemicals being added to toothpaste. Such additions included chemical like triclosan, cetylpyridinium chloride and benzalkonium chloride.
These chemicals are safe though…right?
In the world of scientific research, if you publish your research in one of the top peer-reviewed journals (eg. Cell, Nature, or Science) that means that it is pretty important stuff.
This week a research report was published in the journal Cell, dealing with the bacteria in our gut and Parkinson’s disease. If it is replicated and confirmed, it will most certainly be considered REALLY ‘important stuff’.
In today’s post we review what the researchers found in their study.
Bacteria in the gut. Source: Huffington Post
Although we may think of ourselves as individuals, we are not.
We are host to billions of microorganisms. Ours bodies are made up of microbiomes – that is, collections of microbes or microorganisms inhabiting particular environments and creating “mini-ecosystems”. Most of these bacteria have very important functions which help to keep us healthy and functioning normally. Without them we would be in big trouble.
One of the most important microbiomes in our body is that of the gut (Click here for a nice short review on this topic). And recently there has been a lot of evidence that the microbiome of our gut may be playing a critical role in Parkinson’s disease.
What does the gut have to do with Parkinson’s disease?
We have previously written about the connections between the gut and Parkinson’s disease (see our very first post, and subsequent posts here, here and here), and there are now many theories that this debilitating condition may actually start in the gastrointestinal system. This week a new study was published which adds to the accumulating evidence.
So what does the new study say?
Title: Gut Microbiota Regulate Motor Deficits and Neuroinflammation in a Model of Parkinson’s Disease
Authors: Sampson TR, Debelius JW, Thron T, Janssen S, Shastri GG, Ilhan ZE, Challis C, Schretter CE, Rocha S, Gradinaru V, Chesselet MF, Keshavarzian A, Shannon KM, Krajmalnik-Brown R, Wittung-Stafshede P, Knight R, Mazmanian SK
Journal: Cell, 167 (6), 1469–1480
PMID: 27912057 (this article is available here)
The researchers (who have previously conducted a great deal of research on the microbiome of the gut and it’s interactions with the host) used mice that have been genetically engineered to produce abnormal amounts of alpha synuclein – the protein associated with Parkinson’s disease (Click here for more on this). They tested these mice and normal wild-type mice on some behavioural tasks and found that the alpha-synuclein producing mice performed worse.
A lab mouse. Source: USNews
The researchers then raised a new batch of alpha-synuclein producing mice in a ‘germ free environment’ and tested them on the same behavioural tasks. ‘Germ free environment’ means that the mice have no microorganisms living within them.
And guess what happened:
The germ-free alpha-synuclein producing mice performed as well as on the behavioural task as the normal mice. There was no difference in the performance of the two sets of mice.
How could this be?
This is what the researchers were wondering, so they decided to have a look at the brains of the mice, where they found less aggregation (clustering or clumping together) of alpha synuclein in the brains of germ-free alpha-synuclein producing mice than their ‘germ-full’ alpha-synuclein producing mice.
This result suggested that the microbiome of the gut may be somehow involved with controlling the aggregation of alpha-synuclein in the brain. The researchers also noticed that the microglia – helper cells in the brain – of the germ-free alpha-synuclein producing mice looked different to their counterparts in the germ-full alpha-synuclein producing mice, indicating that in the absence of aggregating alpha synuclein the microglia were not becoming activated (a key feature in the Parkinsonian brain).
The researchers next began administering antibiotics to see if they could replicate the effects that they were seeing in the germ-free mice. Remarkably, alpha-synuclein producing mice injected with antibiotics exhibited very little dysfunction in the motor behaviour tasks, and they closely resembling mice born under germ-free conditions.
How antibiotics work. Source: MLB
Antibiotics kill bacteria via many different mechanisms (eg. disrupting the cell membrane or targeting protein synthesis; see image above), and they have previously demonstrated efficacy in models of Parkinson’s disease. We shall come back to this in a section below.
The researchers in the study next asked if the microbiome of people with Parkinson’s disease could affect the behaviour of their germ free mice. They took samples of gut bacteria from 6 people who were newly diagnosed (and treatment naive) with Parkinson’s disease and from 6 healthy age matched control samples. These samples were then injected into the guts of germ free mice… and guess what happened.
The germ-free mice injected with gut samples from Parkinsonian subjects performed worse on the behavioural tasks than those injected with samples from healthy subjects. This finding suggested that the gut microbiome of people with Parkinson’s disease has the potential to influence vulnerable mice.
Note the wording of that last sentence.
Importantly, the researchers noted that when they attempted this experiment in normal mice they observed no difference in the behaviour of the mice regardless of which gut samples were injected (Parkinsonian or healthy). This suggests that an abundance of alpha synuclein is required for the effect, and that the microbiome of the gut is exacerbating the effect.
So what does it all mean?
If it can be replicated (and there will now be a frenzy of research groups attempting this), it would be a BIG step forward for the field of Parkinson’s disease research. Firstly, it could represent a new and more disease-relevant model of Parkinson’s disease with which drugs can be tested (it should be noted however that very little investigation of the brain was made in this study. For example, we have no idea of what the dopamine system looks like in the affected mice – we hope that this analysis is ongoing and will form the results of a future publication).
The results may also explain the some of the environmental factors that are believed to contribute to Parkinson’s disease. Epidemiological evidence has linked certain pesticide exposure to the incidence Parkinson’s disease, and the condition is associated with agricultural backgrounds (for more on this click here). It is important to reinforce here that the researchers behind this study are very careful in not suggesting that Parkinson’s disease is starting in the gut, merely that the microbiome may be playing a role in the etiology of this condition.
The study may also mean that we should investigate novel treatments focused on the gut rather than the brain. This approach could involve anything from fecal transplants to antibiotics.
EDITORIAL NOTE HERE: While there are one or two anecdotal reports of fecal transplants having beneficial effect in Parkinson’s disease, they are few and far between. There have never been any comprehensive, peer-reviewed preclinical or clinical studies conducted. Such an approach, therefore, should be considered EXTREMELY experimental and not undertaken without seeking independent medical advice. We have mentioned it here only for the purpose of inserting this warning.
Has there been any research into antibiotics in Parkinson’s disease?
You might be surprised to hear this, but ‘Yes there has’. Numerous studies have been conducted. In particular, this one:
Title: Minocycline prevents nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the MPTP model of Parkinson’s disease.
Author: Du Y, Ma Z, Lin S, Dodel RC, Gao F, Bales KR, Triarhou LC, Chernet E, Perry KW, Nelson DL, Luecke S, Phebus LA, Bymaster FP, Paul SM.
Journal: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Dec 4;98(25):14669-74.
PMID: 11724929 (This article is OPEN ACCESS if you would like to read it)
In this research study, the researchers gave the antibiotic ‘Minocycline’ to mice in which Parkinson’s disease was being modelled via the injection of a neurotoxin that specifically kills dopamine neurons (called MPTP).
Minocycline is a tetracycline antibiotic that works by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis. It has also been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in different models of neurodegeneration via several pathways, primarily anti-inflammatory and inhibiting microglial activation.
The researchers found that Minocycline demonstrated neuroprotective properties in cell cultures so they then tested it in mice. When the researchers gave Minocycline to their ‘Parkinsonian’ mice, they found that it inhibited inflammatory activity of glial cells and thus protected the dopamine cells from dying (compared to control mice that did not receive Minocycline).
Have there been any clinical trials of antibiotic?
Again (surprisingly): Yes.
Title: A pilot clinical trial of creatine and minocycline in early Parkinson disease: 18-month results.
Authors: NINDS NET-PD Investigators..
Journal: Clin Neuropharmacol. 2008 May-Jun;31(3):141-50.
PMID: 18520981 (This article is OPEN ACCESS if you would like to read it)
This research report was the follow up of a 12 month clinical study that can be found by clicking here. The researchers had taken two hundred subjects with Parkinson’s disease and randomly sorted them into the three groups: creatine (an over-the-counter nutritional supplement), minocycline, and placebo (control). All of the participants were diagnosed less than 5 years before the start of the study.
At 12 months, both creatine and minocycline were noted as not interfering with the beneficial effects of symptomatic therapy (such as L-dopa), but a worrying trend began with subjects dropping out of the minocycline arm of the study.
At the 18 month time point, approximately 61% creatine-treated subjects had begun to take additional treatments (such as L-dopa) for their symptoms, compared with 62% of the minocycline-treated subjects and 60% placebo-treated subjects. This result suggested that there was no beneficial effect from using either creatine or minocycline in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, as neither exhibited any greater effect than the placebo.
Was that the only clinical trial?
Another clinical trial, targeted a particular type of gut bacteria: Helicobacter pylori (which we have discussed in a previous post – click here for more on that).
Title: Eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection improves levodopa action, clinical symptoms and quality of life in patients with Parkinson’s disease.
Authors: Hashim H, Azmin S, Razlan H, Yahya NW, Tan HJ, Manaf MR, Ibrahim NM.
Journal: PLoS One. 2014 Nov 20;9(11):e112330.
PMID: 25411976 (This article is OPEN ACCESS if you would like to read it)
In this study, the researchers recruited 82 people with Parkinson’s disease. A total of 27 (32.9%) of those subjects had positive tests for Helicobacter pylori, and those participants had significantly poorer clinical scores compared to Helicobacter pylori-negative subjects. The researcher gave the participants a drug that kills Helicobacter pylori, and then twelve weeks later the researchers found improvements in levodopa onset time and effect duration, as well as better scores in motor performance and quality of life measures.
The researchers concluded that the screening and eradication of Helicobacter pylori is inexpensive and should be recommended for people with Parkinson’s disease, especially those with minimal responses to levodopa. Other experiments suggest that Helicobacter pylori is influencing some people’s response to L-dopa (click here for more on that).
Some concluding thoughts
While we congratulate the authors of the microbiome study published in the journal Cell for an impressive piece of work, we are cautious in approaching the conclusions of the study.
All really good research will open the door to lots of new questions, and the Cell paper published last week has certainly done this. But as we have suggested above, the results need to be independently replicated before we can get to excited about them. So while the media may be making a big fuss about this study, we’ll wait for (and report here) the follow-up, replication studies by independent labs before calling this REALLY ‘important stuff’.
The banner for today’s post was sourced from the Huffington Post
This week an interesting new study dealing with the biology of Alzheimer’s was published in the journal Science Translational Medicine. It has drawn a lot of attention as it may be turning our understanding of Alzheimer’s disease on it’s head. If the results are independently replicated and verified, it could potentially have major implications for Parkinson’s disease.
For the last 30 years, a protein called beta-amyloid has been considered one of the bad boys of the most common neurodegenerative condition, Alzheimer’s disease.
What is Alzheimer’s disease?
Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative condition that can occur in middle or old age. It involves a generalized degeneration of the brain, not localised to specific regions like Parkinson’s disease.
What happens in the Alzheimer’s brain?
In the brain, in addition to cellular loss, Alzheimer’s is characterised by the presence of two features:
- Neurofibrillary tangles
- Amyloid plaques
The tangles are aggregations of a protein called ‘Tau’ (we’ll comeback to Tau in a future post). These tangles reside within neurons initially, but as the disease progresses the tangles can be found in the space between cells – believed to be the last remains of a dying cell.
A normal brain vs an Alzheimer’s affected brain. Source: MMCNeuro
Amyloid plaques are clusters of proteins that sit between cells. A key component of the plaque is beta amyloid. Beta-amyloid is a piece of a larger protein that sits in the outer wall of nerve cells where it has certain functions. In certain circumstances, specific enzymes can cut it off and it floats away.
Beta-Amyloid. Source: Wikimedia
Beta-amyloid is a very “sticky” protein and for a long time it has been believed that free floating beta-amyloid proteins begin sticking together, gradually building up into the large amyloid plaques. And these large plaques were considered to be involved in the neurodegenerative process of Alzheimer’s disease.
So what was discovered this week?
This week a study was published that suggests a new (and positive) function for beta amyloid:
Title: Amyloid-β peptide protects against microbial infection in mouse and worm models of Alzheimer’s disease.
Authors: Kumar DK, Choi SH, Washicosky KJ, Eimer WA, Tucker S, Ghofrani J, Lefkowitz A, McColl G, Goldstein LE, Tanzi RE, Moir RD.
Journal: Sci Transl Med. 2016 May 25;8(340):340ra72.
The researchers took three types of mice:
- genetically normal mice
- mice with no beta amyloid
- mice producing a lot of beta amyloid
They infected all of the mice with the microbe that causes meningitis, and they found that the mice producing a lot of beta amyloid lived significantly longer than other groups of mice. They then repeated the experiment in a species of microscopic worm – called C.elegans – and found similar results. These findings suggested that beta amyloid was having a positive effect in the brain.
But then they noticed something strange.
The mice producing a lot of beta amyloid usually do not develop a lot of protein aggregation until old age, but when the researchers looked in the brains of the mice they infected with meningitis, they found significant levels of aggregation in the mice producing a lot of beta amyloid but at a young age..
This led the researchers to conduct some cell culture experiments in which they watched what was happening to the bacteria and beta amyloid. They found that the beta amyloid was sticking to the bacteria and this was leading to the formation of protein aggregates.
The results of these experiments suggested to the researchers an intriguing possibility that beta amyloid may be playing a protective in the brain – acting as an immune system for the brain – against infection.
Thus the aggregations we see in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s may not be the cause of the cell death associated with the disease, but rather evidence of the ‘brain’s immune system’ trying to fight back against unknown infectious agents. The researcher’s of the study were quick to point out that this antimicrobial action of beta amyloid is simply a new function of the protein, and it may have nothing to do with the disease itself. But it will be interesting to see where this research goes next.
What has this got to do with Parkinson’s disease?
Parkinson’s disease is only definitive diagnosed at the postmortem stage. This is done by microscopic examination of the brain. In the brains of people with Parkinson’s disease, there are protein aggregates calls Lewy bodies. These are densely packed clusters of a protein called ‘alpha synuclein‘.
The brown spot is a Lewy body inside of a brain cell. Source: Cure Dementia
If the results of the study presented above are correct and beta amyloid is a protective protein in the brain against infection, could it not be that alpha synuclein may be playing a similar role? It is a fascinating idea that it will be interesting to test.
What are the implications of the study?
Currently, there are numerous clinical trials for Alzheimer’s disease, involving treatments that act against beta amyloid. If the study presented above is correct, and beta amyloid has a role in protecting the brain, these new treatments in clinical trial may actually be weakening the brain’s ability to fight infection.
Similarly, if alpha synuclein is found to exhibit ‘protective’ properties like beta amyloid, then the alpha synuclein vaccine clinical trials currently underway (in which the body’s immune system is primed to remove free floating alpha synuclein, in an attempt to stop the disease from spreading) may need to be reconsidered. At a minimum, investigations into whether alpha synuclein has antimicrobial properties need to be conducted.
Today’s banner was sourced from PBS.