Previous posts

May 2019
When disco-needs-ya, can gene therapy help ya? – calcium channels, caV1.3, dyskinesia, Isradipine, L-dopa, L-dopa induced dyskinesia, microRNA, STEADY-PD, virus
The 2019 World Parkinson’s Congress AC Woolnough, congress, Eli Pollard, Elias Zerhouni, Japan, Kyoto, Stanley Fahn, World Parkinson Coalition, WPC, planet research
Monitoring Parkinson’s: Under pressure Autonomic dysfunction, blood, Cerecor,  diastole, dysautonomia, hypertension, hypotension, Orthostatic, Rislenemdaz, systole, TD-9855, theravance biopharma
I’ve got gum disease on my mind – alpha synuclein, Alzheimer’s, antimicrobial, antiviral, bacteria, beta amyloid, Cerezyme, COR388, gingipain, gum, microbial, viral, virus

April 2019
Monthly Research Review – April 2019 – research overview, publications, clinical studies, new technology, reviews, videos
All we need to do is block CD22? – microglia, B-cell receptor, phagocytosis, Epratuzumab, homeostasis, Immunomedics, CRISPR
A fine time for Felodipine? – autophagy, Huntington’s disease, alpha synuclein, aggregated protein, clinical trial, Isradipine, STEADY-PD, L-type Calcium channel blocker, A53T
The other GDNF clinical trial – clinical trial, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, AAV virus, gene therapy, adeno-associated, neurotrophic factor, regenerative medicine
Sonic Hedgehog (I kid you not) – development, LRRK2, GDNF, flies, genetics, Purmorphamine, smoothened, patched, cancer, inhibitor, activator
Time to resTOR in New Zealand – mTOR, TORC1, TORC2, rapamycin, inhibitor, RBT101, clinical trial, mammalian target of rapamycin, autophagy, PINK1, PARKIN, GBA, Sirolimus, dyskinesias
When undruggable becomes druggable – Nuclear receptor related 1 protein, NURR1, NR4A2, nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A, 5,6-dihydroxyindole, DHI, alpha synuclein
The 2019 ADPD meeting Aim-PD, ambroxol, biomarkers, CDNF, herantis, lisbon, Roche, sanofi genzyme, smartphone, venglustat

March 2019
Monthly Research Review – March 2019 – research overview, publications, clinical studies, new technology, reviews, videos
IPDGC: The genetics of Parkinson’s – International Parkinson Disease Genomics Consortium, GWAS, DNA, PARK genes, genetic risk factors, Accelerating Medicines Partnership, AMP
Deep Mitochondrial stimulation? DBS, deep brain stimulation, excitotoxicity, glutamate, Mitochondria, neuroprotection, Parkin, postmortem analysis, synaptic terminals
AdoCbl + LRRK2 = modulation – vitamin B12, adenosylcobalamin, Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2, Park 8, G2019S, inhibitors, Denali, Methylcobalamin, cobalamin
The Joy of discovery: On the smell of Parkinson’s – Joy Milne, sebum, Tilo Kunath, Volatile Organic Compounds, VOCs, Seborrhea, perillic aldehyde, eicosane
Neu-Ro-Mela-Nin – neuromelanin, Lewy bodies, alpha synuclein, tyrosinase, transcription factor EB, TFEB, Ambroxol
The Eve of Parkinson’s – women, females, LRRK2, Parkinson’s Eve, research, menopause, menstruation, pregnancy
We need to talk about the UPDRS – assessment, unified Parkinson’s disease rating scale, MDS, movement disorder society, wearables, objective, Andy Grove
Distinctly human? – models of Parkinson’s, killifish, Nothobranchius furzeri, alpha synuclein, Lewy bodies, neurodegeneration, primates

February 2019
Monthly Research Review – February 2019 research overview, publications, clinical studies, new technology, reviews, videos
The Bristol GDNF results – clinical trial, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, CDNF, Amgen, Medgenesis, Herantis, Genecode, CERE-120, Neurturin, gene therapy
One ring to rule them all – Ōura, MOTIV, sleep, phase, polysomnography, monitoring, assessment, self tracking, smart ring, REM
A focus on GBA-Parkinson’s – Silverstein foundation, Michael J Fox foundation, beta glucocerebrosidase, GCase, Rheostat Therapeutics, Gain Therapeutics, Gaucher disease
Clinical trials: Trying to make them SEAMless – phase I, II, III, regulators, process, crowd sourcing, hacking, solutions, SEAM, Barry Chandler, Meetup
Parkinson’s: When evolution leaves parts of us behind? – mitochondria, cortex, midbrain, genetics, calcium channels, telencephalization, hypothesis, isradipine, UDCA
Bac to the future – bacteria, gut, microbiota, levodopa, DOPA decarboxylase, Tyrosine decarboxylase, antibiotics, Synlogics, SYNB1618, jejunum, small intestine
The UP Study – UDCA in Parkinson’s – Ursodeoxycholic acid, Sheffield, clinical trial, PARK2, Parkin, PARK8, LRRK2, Ursodiol, bile acid, mitochondria
On your MARCKS. Get set. Go – Phosphorylation, Alzheimer’s, dementia with Lewy bodies, ERK1/2, HMGB1, alpha synuclein, beta amyloid, glycyrrhizin

January 2019
Monthly Research Review – January 2019 research overview, publications, clinical studies, new technology, reviews, videos
The Australian Parkinson’s Mission – multi-arm, clinical trial, repurposing drugs, genetics, biomarkers, substudies, disease modifying
An idea whose time has come – cell transplantation, embryonic stem cells, PARK2, PARKIN, PINK1, genetic variant, early onset, lewy bodies, Edinburgh, Dundee
Exciting Exenatide Exosomes – target engagement, blood, serum, plasma, AKT, MAPK, insulin, neuroprotection, clinical trial
Placebo. Nocebo. Gene-cebo? – genetics, DNA sequencing, variants, risk factors, direct-to-consumer, analysis, mutations, information
The “What would you do?” post – a post describing what I would do if I was diagnosed with Parkinson’s today.
The road ahead: Parkinson’s research in 2019 – expectations, clinical trials, 2019, therapeutics, drugs, treatments, cure, disease modifying therapies

December 2018
2018: Year in review – The annual review of Parkinson’s research for the year 2018
Monthly Research Review – December 2018 research overview, publications, clinical studies, new technology, reviews, videos
From Alchemy to Alkahest – Alzheimer’s, blood, CCR3, chronokines, GDF11, GRF6019, GRF6021, Parabiosis, plasma, Stanford Parkinson’s Plasma Study,
The Parkinson’s Nebula? – Nebula Genomics, GWAS, genetic sequencing, risk factors, direct-to-consumer, 23andMe, PARK genes, genetics
EuPaTh: The Italian connection – European Parkinsons Therapy centre, Alex Reed, Italy, medical, physical, life style, psychological, 4 pillars, first steps
The lipidomics of Parkinson’s – Yumanity, stearoyl-CoA-desaturase, oleic acid, SCD, YTX-465, inhibitor, yeast, fatty acids, lipids, Mediterranean diet, monounsaturated fats
Denali: Phase Ib clinical trial starts – LRRK2, inhibitors,  Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2, PARK8, G2019S, DNL-201, Sanofi, Centogene, clinical trial, RIPK1
The good, the GAD, and the not-so ugly – gene therapy, deep brain stimulation, Neurologix, subthalamic nucleus, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, GABA, glutamic acid decarboxylase
Not bohemian, just ‘Rapsodi’ – GBA, Sanofi Genzyme, Ambroxol, glucocerebrosidase, Venglustat, PREDICT-PD, Fox insights, Gauchers disease
Thyme to look east: Baicalein – Baicalin, Baikal skullcap, traditional Chinese medicine, EGCG, alpha synuclein, aggregation, oligomers, fibrils

November 2018
Monthly Research Review – November 2018 research overview, publications, clinical studies, new technology, reviews, videos
Brain. On. Fire. – NLRP3, inflammasome, inflazome, MCC950, inflammation, alpha synuclein, caspase 1, Nodthera, Jecure, IFM therapeutics, ibuprofen
York: #Parkinsons2018 – Parkinson’s UK, biennial research conference, Benevolent AI, United Neuroscience, inflammation, stem cell transplantation, exercise, Bluerock therapeutics
Mission: Not Impossible – Vibrohealth, wrist band, tremor antenuating devices, Microsoft, Emma Lawton, ALS, Eyewriter
Sensing seriousness about senolytics – senescent cells, senescence, SASP, SATB1, CDKN1A, Unity biotechnology, Oisin Biotechnologies, Dasatinib, Quercetin, Curcumin, Fisetin
We’re re-branding: It’s now called PARPinson’s – PAR, PARP, PARP1, poly ADP ribose polymerase, alpha synuclein, aggregation, Parthanatos, cell death
The potential benefits of missing an appendix – Appendicitis, alpha synuclein, association, appendectomy, oligomer, monomer, aggregation

October 2018
Monthly Research Review – October 2018 – research overview, publications, clinical studies, new technology, reviews, videos
Gene therapy: VY-AADC01 vs AXO-Lenti-PD – virus, clinical trial, update, AAV, lentivirus, AADC, OXB-102, Prosavin,
Targeting PDE1 for PD – phosphodiesterase, PDE1, inhibitor, clinical trial, Intra-Cellular Therapies, ITI-214, cAMP, cGMP
A Lewy body condition? – alpha synuclein, postmortem, LRRK2 p.R1441H, protein aggregation, LRRK2 inhibitors, PARK8, genetics
When you stop going native – tetramers, oligomers, alpha synuclein, mouse model, stablisation compounds
Monitoring Parkinson’s: Doctor, my glasses are listening to us – AudEERING, Emteq, facial expression, voice analysis, hypokinetic dysarthria, basal ganglia, wearable, technology
Grand times in Grand Rapids – Grand Challenges, Rallying, Linked Clinical trials, patient advocacy, prodromal, Van Andel Institute, Cure Parkinson’s Trust
The Bill and Melinda burden study – incidence of Parkinson’s, regional, national, global, Gates, foundation, disease burden, increase

September 2018
Monthly Research Review – September 2018 – research overview, publications, clinical studies, new technology, reviews, videos
Better call Sal(-butamol)? –  Beta, Adrenoreceptor, agonists, antagonists, Propranolol, Salbutamol, asthma, hypertension, tremor, smoking
Exercise: Taking the STING out of Parkinson’s – STING, inflammation, Nimbus Therapeutics, IFM therapeutics, PINK1, PARKIN, mitochondria
EGCG: Anyone fancy a cuppa? – Epigallocatechin Gallate, alpha synuclein, green tea, Promesa study, catechins, antioxidants, aggregation, oligomers
The ADHD study from Utah – ritalin, methylphenidate, retrospective study, PARKIN, PARK2, association, early-onset Parkinson’s
Aspirin: Barking up the right tree? – acetylsalicylic acid,  cyclooxygenase,  Salicylic acid, Spiraea, tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine
The Kiwi Ketogenic study – clinical study, keto diet, low-fat diet, food, ketone bodies, New Zealand

August 2018
Monthly Research Review – August 2018 – research overview, publications, clinical studies, new technology, reviews, videos
EDITORIAL: BREXIT – a rant about the unforeseen consequences for scientific research of Britain’s decision to leave the European Union
Exenatide: Identifying the responders – clinical trial results, response, treatment, post hoc analysis, study, tremor-dominant, insulin resistant
On the hunt for biomarkers – biorepositories, specimens, biopies, tissue, DNA, RNA, samples, blood, serum, collection
DBS 3.0: Magnetise me? – magnetic field, glass catfish, electromagnetic perceptive gene, transcranial magnetic stimulation, deep brain stimulation
The Science of Constipation – gastrointestinal, discomfort, stool, feces, transit time, gut, laxatives, probiotics, clinical studies, trials, colon, small intestine, rectum
The genetics of Parkinson’s: New mutants – GWAS, genome wide association study, genetic variants, mutations, risk factors, PARK genes
ACT UP: Advocacy is Critical To Undoing Parkinson’s – patient advocacy, HIV, AIDS, direct action, protest
Back to back stimulation – spinal cord stimulation, deep brain stimulation, DBS, freezing of gait, Anticipatory postural adjustment, reactive postural response
Green light in Kyoto – induced pluripotent stem cells, IPS, dopamine neurons, cell replacement therapy, cell transplantation, clinical trial, Japan

July 2018
Monthly Research Review – July 2018 – research overview, publications, clinical studies, new technology, reviews, videos
Keep your sights on lymphocytes – T-cells, helper T-cells, IL-17, Interleukin 17, Regulatory T-cells, Secukinumab, Cosentyx, immune system
New LRRK2 results: Game changer? – LRRK2 inhibitors, Denali therapeutics, Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2, PINK1, DNL-201, DNL-151, LRRK1
Voyager Therapeutics update – clinical trial, gene therapy, AADC, VY-AADC, AAV virus, Phase II, FDA, Type C meeting, BLA
TRIMming aggregates – TRIM21, Huntington’s disease, Huntingtin, TAU, protein aggregation, Prothena, antibodies
Wanted: EEF2K inhibitors – oxidation, NRF2, redox, eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase, Longevica Pharmaceuticals, inhibitors, alpha synuclein
A tiny dot with an anti-Parkinson’s plot – graphene quantum dot, graphite, alpha synuclein, Alzheimer’s, beta amyloid, protein aggregation, fibrils, plaques
Lipid issues in ER = ZZZ issues in PD – PINK1, PARKIN, sleep, flies, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, ER, Phosphatidylserine
The Big Hero 6 project – machine learning, artificial intelligence, spiral test, voice test, smart phone app, Intel, Project Paradigm
The Chinese stem cell trial – cell transplantation, clinical trial, embryonic stem cells, ISCO, Transeuro, parthenogenetic stem cells, Bluerock therapeutics, Novo Nordisk

June 2018
Monthly Research Review – June 2018 – research overview, publications, clinical studies, new technology, reviews, videos
Squalamine begets Trodusquemine – alpha synuclein, aggregation, dogfish shark, clinical trial, MSI-1436, ENT-01RASMET, Enterin 
Monitoring Parkinson’s: Putting your finger on it – key stroke, assessment, monitoring, MIT, Madrid, consortium, keyboard, touchscreen
Predicting subtypes of Parkinson’s – BioRxiv,  Parkinson’s Progression Marker Initiative, PPMI, clusters, prognosis, Parkinson Disease Biomarker Program, PDBP
Prothena: Phase I results published – immunotherapy, antibodies, PRX002, clinical trial results, Phase I, alpha synuclein
Is Radotinib ABL to beat Nilotinib? – cancer drug, alpha synuclein, PARKIN, clinical trial, PD Nilotinib, NILO-PD, BRC-ABL inhibitor, Ilyang Pharmaceutical
Blessed are the suppressed – Immunosuppression, immunosuppressant drugs, corticosteroids, Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMDH) inhibitors, cortisone, hydrocortisone
What do you do with a problem like Exenatide? – NLY01, GLP-1 agonist, Neuraly, activated microglia, reactive astrocytes, mood, anxiety, clinical trial
Don’t get mad! Get NAD! – nicotinamide riboside, Nicotinic acid, Niacin, Nicotinamide, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, GBA, Glucocerebrosidase
Xenon: A bright light for dyskinesias? – inhalation, noble gas, involuntary movements, Levodopa, L-dopa, neuroprotection
Keep an eye on mild TBI – traumatic brain injury, mild, moderate, severe, LRRK2

May 2018
Monthly Research Review – May 2018 – research overview, publications, clinical studies, new technology, reviews, videos
The Mannitol results – Clinicrowd, manna sugar, crowd sourced platform, olfaction, smell, osmolytes, molecular chaperones, HSP-70
To B3 or not to B3, that is the question – niacin, vitamin B3, clinical study, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, NAD+, GPR109A, macrophage, M1, M2, anti-inflammatory state
Two birds, one stone? – Tuberculosis, LRRK2, inhibitors, phagocytosis, phagosome, macrophage, PARKIN
Monitoring Parkinson’s: Let’s just sleep on it – IBM, Pfizer, Bluesky project, REM, NREM, clinical trial, Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Polysomnography, Solriamfetol
A vaccine for Parkinson’s – the AFFiRiS update – immunotherapy, antibodies, passive, active, immunity, Prothena, clinical trial, results
DUBstop: Oxford-style – deubiquitinating enzymes, DUB inhibitors, USP30, USP8, University of Oxford, FORMA Therapeutics, Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway, autophagy, ubiquitin, Hybrigenics Pharma, Mission therapeutics
I’ll have the fish please – β-parvalbumin, calcium, alpha synuclein, protein aggregation, amyloid state, omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid
Planet Researcher to Planet Patient – a commentary/opinion piece regarding life in Parkinson’s research
When SERCA goes berserker – calcium, alpha synuclein, endoplasmic reticulum, ‘sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, thapsigargin, mipsagargin, G-202, Inspyr Therapeutics
On the importance of Calcium – alpha synuclein, synapse, vesicle, isradipine, action potential, neurotransmitter, STEADY-PD III, clinical trial

April 2018
Monthly Research Review – April 2018 – research overview, publications, clinical studies, new technology, reviews, videos
IBD+TNF AB ≠ PD? – inflammatory bowel disease, LRRK2, anti-TNF therapy, antibodies, inflammation, XPro1595
BIIB054: An immunotherapy update – antibody, Biogen, vaccine, clinical trial, phase I, Spark study, alpha synuclein, protein aggregation, oligomers, fibrils
Could heart failure medication be good for Parkinson’s? – Bumetanide, Bumex, loop diuretic, cholinergic, GABAergic, interneurons, striatum, NKCC1, chloride, antagonist, B&A Therapeutics
Diabetes and Parkinson’s – glucose intolerance, exenatide, bydureon, DPP-4 inhibitors, disease progression, association, epidemiological studies
Ibudilast: A Phosphodiesterase inhibitor – Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, ALS, cAMP, cGMP, Multiple sclerosis, MR1916, dipyridamole, Vinpocetine, ITI-214,  Intra-Cellular Therapies
UDCA 2.0 = TUDCA? – Ursodeoxycholic acid, Ursodiol, Tauroursodeoxycholic acid, bile acid, neuroprotection, clinical trial, repurposing drugs
The aggregating antics of (some) anaesthetics – Inhaled anesthetics, Phox2B, alpha synuclein, propofol, isoflurane, morphine, endoplasmic reticulum, ER stress, unfolded protein response
Is there NOP hope for Parkinson’s? – nociceptin/orphanin FQ, N/OFQ, nociceptin, receptor, ligand, dyskinesias, Blackthorn therapeutics, BTRX-246040, neuroprotection

March 2018
Monthly Research Review – March 2018 – research overview, publications, clinical studies, new technology
Objective measures: Getting smart about pills – Proteus, Medtronic, gastrointestinal tract, constipation, RASMET study, clinical trial, smart pills, digital pills
Making. It. Personal. – clinical trials, drugs, treatment, adaptive, I-SPY, MS-Smart, Stampede, EP-AD
Something is interesting in the state of Denmark – arimoclomol, orphazyme, biotech, ALS, clinical trial, GBA, Glucocerebrosidase, glucocerebroside, SOD1, molecular chaperones
“What’s the evolutionary advantage of Parkinson’s?” – LRRK2-G2019S, flies, vision, traits, contrast sensitivity, Edmond J. Safra lecture, King’s College London, occupation, jobs
The dilemma of success – a hypothetical problem that we may face in the not so distant future
Alpha Synuclein: New Species – AFFiRiS, Prothena, monomers, oligomers, fibrils, Pα-synF, Pα-syn*, antibodies, vaccine, autophagy, mitochondria
Happy birthday: Silverstein Foundation – Jonathan Silverstein, GBA, glucocerebrosidase, Prevail Therapeutics, Alector, resTORbio, REGENXBIO, gene therapy
Voyager Therapeutics: Phase I clinical trial update – VY-AADC, gene therapy, Oxford biomedica, dopamine, AAV virus, clinical trial
The Parkinson’s association-‘s’ – epidemiological study, 23andMe, Michael J Fox Foundation, PredictPD, migraines, obsessive-compulsive disorders, seasonal allergies, anemia, Honolulu Heart Study, liposuction, chin dimples

February 2018
Monthly Research Review – February 2018 – research overview, publications, clinical studies, new technology
An idea: “O Canada” – just an idea about better involving the Parkinson’s community in the research being conducted on PD
Reduce your RAGE as you AGE – glycation, sugar, lewy bodies, Azeliragon, vTv Therapeutics, Advanced Glycation Endproduct, receptor of Advanced Glycation Endproducts,
One black sheep per week – genetic variants, somatic mutations, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex,
Mickey becomes more human? – Atg7, autophagy, genetically engineered mice, mouse models, Lewy bodies, cellular inclusions
Spine-tingling research – spinal cord stimulation, pilot clinical study,
Trazodo or Trazodon’t? – Trazodone, antidepressant, repurposing drugs, neurodegenerative, dyskinesias,
The mystery of caffeine – coffee, metabolites, methylxanthine, adenosine 2A receptor, tea, theobromine
When the zombies are all in your head – cellular senescence, paraquat, herbicide, dopamine neurons, astrocytes, Unity biotechnology

January 2018
Monthly Research Review – January 2018 – research overview, publications, clinical studies, new technology
‘Talking bout my resolution’ – seeking feedback from readers regarding ideas for developing the SoPD website
Inspiration from a church in Mammoth – Jeremiah Pate, Daniela Zarnescu, alpha synuclein, chaperones, protein misfolding
EDITORIAL: That Pfizer news – opinion piece on Pfizer’s decision to terminate Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s research
FASN-ating PINK research – Vitamin K2, PINK1, Parkin, FASN, TVB-2640, mitochondria, menaquinone, menatetrenone, MK-7, MK-4, Fatty acid synthase
When GCase is away, the GSLs will play – GBA1, Sanofi Genzyme, Ambroxol, Miglustat, Glycosphingolipids, Venglustat
The road ahead: Parkinson’s research in 2018 – expectations, clinical research, clinical trials, 2018, therapeutics, drugs, treatments

December 2017
2017 – Year in Review: A good vintage – annual review of Parkinson’s research
Multiple System Atrophy: A prion disease? – MSA-C, MSA-P, Parkinsonisms, oligomer, fibrils, alpha synuclein,
Novartis focuses on improving PARKIN control – CRISPR-Cas9, proteasome, mitophagy, PARK2, screening study, positive/negative regulators
Inhibiting LRRK2: The Denali Phase I results – Denali Therapeutics, DNL-151, DNL-201, LRRK2 inhibitors, clinical trial, phase I, Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2
James: His legacy (Part 4) – James Parkinson, legacy, history, 200 years, anniversary, Arvid Carlson, William Rutherford Sanders, Charcot, Hornykiewicz, Gowers, Cotzias, Rowntree
A virtual reality for Parkinson’s: Keapstone – Parkinson’s UK, Nrf2, Keap1, biotech, drug development, oxidative stress
PAQ-ing more punch for Parkinson’s – Guadeloupe, French West Indies, Progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy, PSP, MSA, Annonaceae, acetogenins, melatonin, Quinoxalines, PAQ, MPAQ, PPQ
The anti-depressing research of antidepressants – Depression, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, Amitriptyline, Nortriptyline
Non-invasive gene therapy: “You never monkey with the truth” – GBA, glucocerebrosidase, virus, alpha synuclein, Oxford Biomedica, Prosavin, Adeno-associated virus, AAV-PHP.B
Are Lewy bodies fake news? – cellular inclusions, aggregation, protein, alpha synuclein

November 2017
The EMPRSN talk #1 – public talk, video, Parkinson’s UK, clinical trials
The TAU of Parkinson’s – MAPT, microtubules, alpha synuclein, protein aggregation, genetic risk, haplotype, TRx0237, TauRx Pharmaceuticals,
Beware of the PINK-SNO(W) man! – PARKIN, PINK1, p53, mitochondria, mitophagy, Nitrosylation, S-nitrosylation reaction, environment
The Acorda’s Tozadenant Phase III clinical trials – adenosine A2a receptor antagonist, agranulocytosis, sepsis, Istradefylline,
Editorial: Orphan drug tax credit – rare disease, NORD, OOPD, ORD, Orphanet, EURORDIS, drug development, subsets, Parkinsonism,
James: The man behind the disease (Part 3) – James Parkinson, 200 years, anniversary, history, London Correspondence Society, political radical, geology, paleontology
The LRRK Ascending – LRRK1, LRRK2, PARK8, Dardarin, G2019S,
CRISPR-Cas9: “New CRISPY Parkinson’s research” – gene editing, paraquat, POR, ATP7A, SLC45A4, yeast, alpha synuclein, DJ-1, PARK7, TNX, TIMM9, Editas Medicine,

October 2017
Clinical trials: The Power of One – I-SPY trial, Adaptive clinical trials, N-of-1 studies, caffeine, nicotine, simvastatin, Naftazone
“Three hellos” for Parkinson’s – Trehalose, glucose, autophagy, neuroprotection, inflammation, disaccharide, Junaxo, JNX3001, Bioblast Pharma
Are we getting NURR to the end of Parkinson’s disease? – Nurr1, NR4A2, SA00025, IRX4204, BRF110
Resveratrol’s neglected siblings – stilbenes, Pterostilbene, Piceatannol, NRF2, LRRK2, alph synuclein, stilbenoids
Trying to ‘beet’ Parkinson’s in the developing world – beetroot, red beet, developing world, L-dopa, Levodopa
PACAP and a snail model of Parkinson’s – Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, G protein–coupled receptors, PAC1, VPAC1, VPAC2, Ac-[Phe(pI)(6), Nle(17)]PACAP(1-27)
A clever new Trk for Rasagiline – DOPAL, MAO-B inhibitors, Alpha Synuclein, BDNF, TrkB,
NIX-ing the PARKIN and PINK1 problem – mitochondria, mitophagy, Parkin, Pink1, Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, NIX,

September 2017
We need a clinical trial of broccoli. Seriously! – Cruciferous vegetables, Brassicaceae, Cruciferae, Glucoraphanin, glucosinolate, Sulforaphane, NRF2, ARE, oxidative stress
Plan B: Itchy velvet beans – Mucuna pruriens – natural, L-dopa, levodopa, Ghana, fava beans
Food for thought! – fish oil, CAM Care, diet, nutritional supplement, iron, coenzymeQ10, PRO-PD, survey, online, soda, beef
AAV-PHP.B: The future is apparently now – non-invasive, gene therapy, Ambroxol, GBA, glucocerebrosidase, virus, alpha synuclein
O’mice an’ men – gang aft agley – Dopamine, oxidative stress, IPS cells, neuromelanin, alpha synuclein, glucocerebrosidase, N-acetylcysteine, NAC, Isradipine
QUATS going on?!? – triclosan, cetylpyridinium chloride, benzalkonium chloride, quaternary ammonium compounds, cetylpyridinium chloride, toothpaste
Voyager Therapeutics: phase Ib clinical trial results – VY-AADC01, AADC, gene therapy, AAV virus, Oxford Biomedica, Neurologix, Ceregene,
Beta2-Adrenoreceptor agonists: Another game changer? – Asthma, Clenbuterol, Salbutamol, Norway, Beta2-Adrenergic receptor,

August 2017
Dear FDA, this is bigly wrong…and you know it! – healthcare regulators, dopamine agonists, impulsivity, gambling, hypersexuality
Hey DJ, I-so-sit-rate! – DJ-1, Park7, Nrf2, oxidative stress, antioxidant, isocitrate dehydrogenase, isocitrate,
Mdivi-1: the small molecule that could? – mitochondria, division, fusion, P110, Kim Tieu, mitochondrial division inhibitor 1, neuroprotection
Self monitoring: there’s something in your eye – self tracking, Proteus, Google, Novartis, Alcon, Dexcom, smart lens, patch, pill
Lrrking in low orbit – ISS, International space station, microgravity, low-Earth orbit, Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2, inhibitors
Dementia with Lewy Bodies: New recommendations – Alzheimer’s disease, care, diagnosis, treatment, recommendations, Robin Williams,
DPP-4: Not a Star Wars character – Dipeptidyl peptidase-4, inhibitors, Sitagliptin, liraglutide, GLP-1, Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, Berberine, Lupeol
Exenatide: An editorial – phase II clinical trial, exendin-4, GLP-1 receptor agonist, Liraglutide, Lixisenatide, dilemma of success, size of effect
Exenatide: One step closer to joblessness! – phase II clinical trial, exendin-4, GLP-1 receptor agonist, gila monster, positive result!
The next killer APP: LRRK2 inhibitors? – Amyloid Precursor Protein, Alzheimer’s, Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2, Tau, Rab, G2019S, genetic mutation

July 2017
Nilotinib: the other phase II trial – abl inhibitor, clinical trial, gleevec, cancer drug, autophagy
The myth of Spring babies – seasonal, birth, schizophrenia, influenza, winter, spring, risk
The Agony and the Ecstasy – dyskinesias, Tim Lawrence, Horizon BBC, Ecstasy, MDMA, UWA-121, serotonin, subthalamic nucleus
Higher socioeconomic status jobs – Centre for Disease Control, CDC, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, socioeconomic, status, occupation, job, personality, traits
Helicobacter pylori: Unwanted passengers? – microbes, eradication, clinical study, gut, stomach,
DBS2.0: Look mum, no electrodes! – deep brain stimulation, non-invasive, electrodes, temporal interference stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation,
Improving the SoPD blog 2017 – any thoughts/suggestions? – housekeeping, improvements, blog, website, suggestions, changes, ideas
The Llama-nation of Parkinson’s disease – antibodies, nanobodies, Ablynx, alpha synuclein, llamas
Future of gene therapy: hAAVing amazing new tools – virus, Oxford Biomedica, Prosavin, Caltech, Adeno-associated virus, AAV
Tetrabenazine: A strategy for Levodopa-induced dyskinesia? – tardive dyskinesia, Deutetrabenazine, Huntington’s disease, chorea,
A need for better regulation: Stem cell transplantation – embryonic stem cells, TP53, p53, genetic mutations, variants, cancer, stem cell clinics
Glutathione – Getting the k’NAC’k of Parkinson’s disease – acetylcysteine, NAC, antioxidant, EPI-589, Edison Pharmaceuticals,
The omnigenics of Parkinson’s disease? – genetics, alpha synuclein, height, GIANT, core genes, minor variants

June 2017
The other anniversary: 20 years of Alpha Synuclein – genetic mutation, 1997, Polymeropoulos, Nussbaum, Golbe, G209A, Salerno, Spillantini, Goedert
The autoimmunity of Parkinson’s disease? – alpha synuclein, T cells, autoimmune, MHC complex, autoantibodies, antigen, candesartan, Treg cells
On the hunt: Parkure – Flies, drosophila, cure, repurposed drugs, Scotland, Edinburgh, drug screening, NRF2, Astemizole, antihistamine, Ketoconazole
Cholesterol, statins, and Parkinson’s disease – lipoproteins, lipids, Hydrophilic, lipophilic, PD STAT, clinical trial, simvastatin,
Who am I but my BMI – weight, risk of Parkinson’s, body mass index,
BioRxiv – open access preprints – manuscripts, arxiv, lrrk2, alpha synuclein, publishing
Are Dyskinesias days NAM-bered? – Dipraglurant, mGluR5, negative allosteric modulator, Addex Therapeutics, Michael J Fox Foundation, dyskinesias
The Melanoma drug from MODAG – melanoma, skin cancer, alpha synuclein, Anle138b
Flu jabs and Parkinson’s disease – influenza, virus, vaccination, vaccine
New stem cell transplantation trial for Parkinson’s proposed in China – embryonic stem cells, clinical trial, China, neuronal-precursors
Oleuropein – “surely the richest gift of heaven?” – antioxidant, olive tree, phenylethanoid, hydroxytyrosol, mTOR, autophagy, Alzheimer’s disease

May 2017
James: That essay – James Parkinson, history, essay on the shaking palsy, Paralysis agitans, 200 years, anniversary
Sheffield: flies, fish and a Tigar – UCDA, Ursodeoxycholic Acid, Ursodiol, zebrafish, mitochondria, Pink1, Lrrk2, Tigar, autophagy, mitophagy, Parkinson’s UK
A connection between ALS & Parkinson’s disease? Oh’ll, SOD it! – Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Lou Gehrig’s disease, motor neuron disease, free radicals, antioxidants, neuroprotective, Australia, SOD1, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, Cu(II)ATSM
Sar-gram-o-stim: The immunostimulation of Parkinson’s disease – immunomodulation, Sargramostim, Nebraska, clinical trial, Treg cells
Shining a light on movement – optogenetics, globus pallidus, movement, motor cortex, Channelrhodopsin, RetroSense
PARK2 and the big C – cancer, mutations, genetics, variants, Parkin, cell division
Rotten eggs, Rotorua and Parkinson’s disease – hydrogen sulfide, New Zealand, neuroprotection, H2S, antioxidants,
New drug approved for ALS – Edaravone, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Lou Gehrig’s disease, motor neuron disease, free radicals, antioxidants, neuroprotective
The Antibiotic and Parkinson’s: Oppsy, they got doxy! – doxycycline, antibiotics, neuroprotection, 6-OHDA, Alexander Fleming,
Trying to digest gut research – microbiome, vagotomy, gut, gastrointestinal system, microbiota

April 2017
Improving Patient Education – Introducing Eirwen Malin – Patient education, Winston Churchill Memorial Trust, fellowship, Eirwen Malin, USA, Argentina,
Wearable Tech 4 Parkinson’s – self tracking, smart phone apps,
Stress and Parkinson’s disease – cortisol, stress, hydrocortisone, adrenal gland,
Old dogs, new tricks – repurposing drugs for Parkinson’s – Dibenzoylmethane, Trazodone, Alzheimer’s, neurodegeneration, prion, repurposing drugs, eIF2alpha, PERK
Iron, life force, and Parkinson’s disease – Iron overload, Chelator therapy, Prana Biotechnology, PBT434, ADPD2017
On astrocytes and neurons – reprogramming for Parkinson’s – Yamanaka, IPS cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, Sweden,
An Ambroxol update – active in the brain – Ambroxol, GBA, glucocerebrosidase, lysosomes, clinical trial, update, genetic mutation
Stimulating research in London (Canada) – spinal cord stimulation, Miguel Nicolelis, Duke, Mandar Jog, Western University, clinical study
Editorial: Putting 200 years into context – 200 year anniversary, James Parkinson, research, science, context, alpha synuclein, GBA
Milestones in Parkinson’s disease research and discovery – 200 year anniversary, James Parkinson, research, science, clinical trials, discovery, Frank Church.
The Enlightened Mr Parkinson – author, interview, Cherry Lewis, James Parkinson, 200 year anniversary,
Hepatitis – Parkinson’s goes viral? – virus, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, Friedrich Heinrich Lewy, Lewy bodies, Negri bodies, rabies, post-encephalitic Parkinsonism, Taiwan, alpha synuclein,
James: The man behind the disease (Part 1) – 200 year anniversary, James Parkinson,

March 2017
ADHD and Parkinson’s disease – Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, dopamine, ritalin, methylphenidate, echogenicity, Park2, Parkin
Resveratrol: From the folks who brought you Nilotinib – red wine, antioxidants, sirtuins, grapes, Alzheimer’s, clinical trial, Parkin, Park2
A new theory of Parkinson’s disease – Ole Isacson, threshold, ascending, Simone Engelender, Braak, alpha synuclein, Lewy bodies, theory
A yeast model of Parkinson’s disease – Susan Lindquist, microorganism, yeast, genetics, RAB1, Nedd4, Yumanity
The Journal of Parkinson’s disease – special issue – 200 year anniversary, discoveries, special issue, OPEN ACCESS, L-dopa, history DBS, cell transplantation
The red headed mice of Boston – red hair, ginger, melanoma, MC1R, Nurr1, melanocortin-1 receptor

February 2017
Phase II trial launched for Nilotinib – cancer drug, Nilotinib, Georgetown University, clinical trial, phase II, Tasigna,
New kiwi research in Parkinson’s disease – Pericytes, tunneling nanotubes, alpha synuclein, lewy bodies, disease spread, New Zealand,
How pigs are helping with Parkinson’s disease – NTCELL, Living cell technologies, LCT, encapsulated cells, implantation, cerebrospinal fluid, choroid plexus, clinical trial,
Confirmation about that gut feeling? – microbiome, microbiota, gut, gastrointestinal tract, microorganisms, bacteria, sequencing
Pink flies in Leicester at it again – mitochondria, PINK1, PARKIN, flies, Leicester, ATF4
HIV and Parkinson’s disease – AIDS, HIV, virus, AIDS dementia complex, lentivirus, HAART
Busy day for Parkinson’s – 9/2/2017 – Blood test, diagnosis, neurofilament light chain, Nfl, Acorda therapeutics, inhalable L-dopa, clinical trial, phase 3
George H and Vascular Parkinsonism – mini stroke, George HW Bush, syndrome, Vascular, Arteriosclerotic, Parkinsonism, diabetes, high blood pressure,  Macdonald Critchley,
On bans and boycotts – editorial, travel ban, Executive Order 13769, conferences, SfN,
PARIS is always a good idea – PARIS1, Pink1, Parkin, mitochondria,
Something ‘new and fresh’ from Korea – Kainos, Korea, Clinical trial, FAF1, KM-819, apoptosis, inhibitor

January 2017
Parkinson’s 101 (care of Parkinson’s UK) – what is Parkinson’s, clinical trial, drug design, videos, Michael J Fox, Parkinson’s UK
A smartphone application for Parkinson’s disease – umotif, monitoring, technology, clinical study,
An Update from Voyager Therapeutics trials for Parkinson’s – AADC, gene therapy, clinical trial, update,
The Dogfish solution for Parkinson’s – dogfish, Spurdogs, Mud shark, Squalide, Squalamine, alpha synuclein, MSI-1436
Niacin rich diets for Pink flies – Pink1, early onset Parkinson’s, Niacin, NAD+, mitochondria, nicotinamide, PARP,
An interesting commentary on the interpretation of the Nilotinib trial results – Nilotinib, clinical trial, MAO-B inhibitors, DOPAC, HVA
NRF2 and Parkinson’s disease – antioxidants, transcription factor, Antioxidant response elements, alpha synuclein, Lrrk2, Ayurveda, Curcumin, turmeric
Improving the SoPD blog – any thoughts? – house keeping post, requesting feedback

December 2016
The road ahead – Parkinson’s disease research in 2017 – clinical trials, key research areas, slowing the disease, basic biology, replacing lost cells, early detection
Update – Mannitol and Parkinson’s disease – Manna, sweetener, CliniCrowd, Israel, social impact,
Mmmm, Chocolate – xocolātl, cacao, β-phenylethylamine, Kuna indians, Panama, white chocolate, dark chocolate
Blood transfusions and Parkinson’s disease – Blood, transfusion, prion, Alzheimer’s
PREP-ing to treat Parkinson’s disease – prolyl oligopeptidase, PREP, serine protease, inhibitors,
A drug from Kalamazoo – Diabetes, Metabolic Solutions Development, MSDC-0160, Exenatide,
The biology of immortality and Parkinson’s disease – Shinya Yamanaka, IPS cells, regeneration, life extension
A brave new world: 21st Century Cures Act – Obama, FDA, new law, regulator, CDC
Gene therapy in Parkinson’s disease – virus, VY-AADC01, Voyager therapeutics, Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, AADC, clinical trial,
Milk (Yes, milk) and Parkinson’s disease – milk, heptachlor epoxide, Honolulu Heart Study,
Gut reaction to Parkinson’s disease – microbiome, microglia, antibiotics, clinical study, Minocycline

November 2016
A new LAG in Parkinson’s – alpha synuclein, TM9SF2,  Lag3, lymphocyte-activation gene 3, disease progression
Get more EGCG. Drink green tea – green tea, alpha synuclein, EGCG, Epigallocatechin Gallate, monomers, oligomers, fibrils, Lewy bodies
Update – ISCC Stem cell Transplantation trial – SFN, cell transplantation, clinical trial, Melbourne, Australia, International Stem Cell Corporation, ISCO, hpNSC
Something different – Government funding for Parkinson’s research – Trump, US elections, BREXIT, research funding, EU, science funding
Prothena reports Phase 1b results for Parkinson’s immunotherapy – Affiris, clinical trial, passive immunity, Prothena, PRX002, vaccine, antibodies
The benefits (???) of Antioxidants – clinical trial, Coenzyme Q, free radicals, orac, oxidation, vitamins

October 2016
Interesting reading – Nature, prion, lewy bodies, transplantation
Inhaling L-dopa – inhaler, Arvid Carlsson, Oleh Hornykiewicz, Levodopa, George Cotzias, Acorda Therapeutics,
PAMs for Parkinson’s – Prexton, PXT002331, globus pallidus, mGluR4 positive allosteric modulator, dyskinesias, clinical study
The curious case of Bulgarian Gypsies and the incidence of Parkinson’s disease – incidence, statistics, Amish, population, disease burden, Japan

September 2016
Cannabis and Parkinson’s disease – marijuana, medicinal use, clinical studies
The mystery deepens – Melanoma and Parkinson’s disease – skin cancer, genetics
First film footage of Parkinson’s disease – Arthur Van Gehuchten, cinematography, Youtube, Lancet
Update: Stem cells trial for Parkinson’s disease – cell transplantation, clinical trial, Melbourne, Australia, International Stem Cell Corporation, ISCO, hpNSC
Vaccine for Parkinson’s – AFFiRiS update – clinical trial, vaccination, alpha synuclein, antibodies, Austria
On year in – anniversary, happy birthday, 12 months
Game changer for Alzheimer’s – antibodies, clinical trial, Aducanumab, beta-amyloid, alpha synuclein, Biogen

August 2016
Is there something in my eye? – eyeball, retina, veins, arteries, diabetes, Rosiglitazone
Nilotinib update – new trial delayed – Nilotinib, cancer drug, delayed clinical trial
Coffee and Parkinson’s disease it’s not just caffeine – coffee, caffeine, Quercetin, flavonoid

July 2016
Identical twins and Parkinson’s disease – Jeff and Jack Gernsheimer, GBA, Lrrk2, monozygotic, dizygotic, iPS cells, epigenetics
Pesticides and Parkinson’s disease – Farming, insecticides, rotenone, ground water, fungicides
Juvenile-onset Parkinson’s disease – PARK genes, Henri Huchard, Parkin, DJ1, Pink1, PODXL
Editorial note – Cambridge University, Stem cells, institute, Wellcome Trust, #MyView, awareness campaign
Traumatic brain injury and Parkinson’s disease – an association – traumatic brain injury, loss of consciousness, Alzheimer’s disease, Dementia pugilistica
Bees! Bees! Hark to your bees! – clinical trial, bee venom, Apitoxin, Apamin, Calcium channels
Nilotinib and Parkinson’s disease: an update – cancer drug, clinical trial, Tasigna, Novartis, leukemia, CML, autophagy, lysosome, c-Abl inhibitors
The GDNF Trial (Bristol) initial results – Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor, GDNF, neurotrophic, MedGenesis, Bristol, Clinical trial, Parkinson’s UK, Cure PD Trust,
A gut feeling about gut feelings – vagotomy, Movement Disorder meeting, Berlin, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian

June 2016
New criteria for Parkinson’s disease – diagnosis, criteria, movement disorder
Your appendix and Parkinson’s disease – Appendectomy, alpha synuclein, gut, intestines, bacteria
Muhammad Ali (1942-2016) – famous, boxer, sports

May 2016
A change of dogma for Alzheimer’s disease? – beta amyloid, alpha synuclein, plaques, tangles, protein, aggregation, bacteria, microbes
The Autistic spectrum and Parkinson’s disease – Autism, aging, risk, incidence, PARK2, neuroleptics
Manna from heaven? Mannitol and Parkinson’s disease – alpha synuclein, sweetener, sugar, protein aggregation
The debate surrounding a new Stem cell transplantation trial for Parkinson’s – cell transplantation, clinical trial, Australia, International Stem Cell Corporation, ISCO, hpNSC
Finding PARK16 – PARK genes, genetics, ADORA1, familial
Blood test for Parkinson’s disease? – mitochondria, hyperactivity, clinical study, diagnosis

April 2016
An update on the connection between Melanoma and Parkinson’s disease – somatic mutations, PARK genes, Lrrk2, skin cancer
Helicobacter pylori and Parkinson’s disease – gut, intestines, microbes, bacteria, ALS-PDC, BMAA, Guam
Older siblings and Parkinson’s disease – brother, sister, Sweden, ALS, Schizophrenia
The Parkinson’s UK 2016 Gretschen Amphlet Memorial Lecture – Cambridge, Prof Barker, Parkinson’s UK, public lecture, cell transplantation, clinical trials
Something different – recognising a birthday – James Parkinson, anniversary, photo, portrait, Jean-Martin Charcot
Chromosome 22 and Parkinson’s disease – genetics, 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, DiGeorge syndrome, risk

March 2016
And now spit! – saliva, test, diagnosis, alpha synuclein
Another connection between skin and Parkinson’s disease – Rosacea, antibiotics, dermatitis
Does the age of onset make a difference? – statistics, demographics, early onset, juvenile Parkinsonism, Henri Huchard
Herpes Simplex virus and Alpha-Synuclein – immune system, antibodies, virus
Disco-needs-ya – the science of dyskinesias – involuntary movements, L-dopa, Chorea, Dystonia,

February 2016
A sense of (and the science of) smell – olfactory function, smell
Diagnosed 2500 years ago? No problem – India, Ayurveda, Kampa vata, Mucuna pruriens, L-dopa
Cleaning up with Ambroxol – Glucocerebrosidase, GBA, Ambroxol, clinical trial
Diabetes, Monster saliva, and Parkinson’s disease – glucose tolerance, diabetes, insulin, Gila monster, Exenatide, GLP-1 agonist, clinical trial
Something lrrk-ing in the water… – Lrrk2, Phosphorylation, urine, diagnostic test,
Brain (not Heart) warming research – warm brain, temperature
The science of focused ultrasound therapy – clinical trial, ultrasound, thalamotomy, pallidotomy
New Research – on how movement is controlled – basal ganglia, thalamus, direct/indirect pathways, optogenetics, dopamine
Improving diagnosis – autoantibodies, DATscan
New research – new targets of Lrrk2 – Lrrk2, Sergey Brin, dardarin, rab proteins

January 2016
New research – the disorder of Alpha Synuclein – monomeric, αlpha synuclein, protein aggregation
The vulnerability of dopamine cells in the brain – midbrain, dopamine, substantia nigra pars compacta, SNC, ventral tegmental area, VTA
New research – Urate and Parkinson’s – Ammonia, Inosine, antioxidant, blood
New Research -Shared genetic features – DNA methylation, common genetic markers, neurodegenerative disease
Viruses and Parkinson’s – a hit and run story? – influenza, H1N1, encephalitis lethargica, Spanish flu, H5N1, hepatitis C, chickenpox
The Placebo effect and Parkinson’s disease – dopamine, placebo, randomized double-blind study
Cell transplantation – Replacing what has been lost – Colorado, Columbia, Tampa Bay, clinical trials, Transeuro, Embryonic stem cells, lewy bodies

December 2015
GDNF and Parkinson’s disease – Synergen, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor, neurturin, persephin, artemin, gene therapy, MedGenesis, NSgene, Amgen, Bristol, clinical trial
A call to arms – Parkinson’s, anniversary, 200 years
Parkinson’s disease and the cancer drug – Nilotinib, Tasigna, Novartis, leukemia, CML, autophagy, lysosome, clinical trial, c-Abl inhibitors
“Red hair, sir, in my opinion, is dangerous” – red hair, fair skin, frequency, incidence, MC1R

November 2015
The difference between men and women – frequency, incidence, Japanese, testosterone, Cox2
The Honolulu Heart Study – Japanese, smoking

October 2015
The smell of Parkinson’s disease – Joy Milne, Perth, Scotland, sebum, skin

September 2015
Do you have trouble lying? Parkinson’s and Personality traits – metabolism, prefrontal cortex
Vaccination for Parkinson’s disease – vaccine, alpha synuclein – AFFiRiS, clinical trial, vaccine, alpha synuclein, Prothena, Lewy body
Alzheimer’s news – prion, amyloid beta,
Melanoma and Parkinson’s – skin cancer
A gut feeling – intestines, stomach, vagus nerve, vagotomy