Tagged: electrode

Deep Mitochondrial stimulation?

 

 

Recently some researchers conducted an analysis of some postmortem brains from people with Parkinson’s and they discovered something rather curious.

Half of the brains that they analysed came from people with Parkinson’s who had been given deep brain stimulation (or DBS) to help manage their symptoms. When the researchers analysed the mitochondria – the powerstations of each cell – in the dopamine neurons of these brain, they found that the DBS treatment had helped to improve the number of mitochondria in these cells.

Specifically, the DBS treatment “seemed to have inhibited or reversed the reduction in mitochondrial volume and numbers” that was observed in the Parkinson’s brains that had not had DBS.

In today’s post, we will look at what DBS is, what the new research report found, and what these new findings could mean for the Parkinson’s community.

 


The worst thing. Source: Greatist

Do you know the worst thing that happens to us in life?

We wake up each day.

Every day of our lives (so far) we have woken up and been given – without any kind of justification – another 16 or so hours to do whatever we want with.

Regardless of one’s physical/mental state, this is a bad thing.

This continuous pattern is what is referred to in psychology as a ‘continuous schedule of reinforcement’. Such regimes instill complacency and – worse – expectation. They quickly lead to people taking things for granted. All of us are guilty of thinking “I’ll do it tomorrow”.

Source: Taskcracker

Such a continuous pattern of reinforcement does not prepare one well for a life in scientific research, where there isn’t a constant schedule of reinforcement (quite the opposite actually). Experiments regularly go wrong (reagents/equipment fail), grants/manuscripts get rejected – it can be rather brutal.

But here is where the addictive component of science comes into effect. Every so often, something works. And even better, every so often something unexpected happens – an ‘intermittent/irregular schedule of reinforcement’. An experiment will occasionally spit out a completely unexpected result, which could change everything.

Source: Granger

These are the moments of insights that researchers are slaving for. The instant that they are the first to “walk on the moon”.

They are moments to savour.

And this must have been the state of mind for some researchers who dicovered something surprising and absolutely remarkable recently while they were looking at some postmortem brains from individuals with Parkinson’s who had been treated with deep brain stimulation.

What is deep brain stimulation?

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DBS2.0: Look mum, no electrodes!

DBS


Deep brain stimulation is a surgical procedure that can provide immediate motor-related benefits to people with Parkinson’s disease.

The approach involves placing electrodes deep inside the brain. This procedure requires invasive surgery and there are no guarantees that it will actually work for everybody.

Recently, researchers at MIT have devised a new technique that could one day allow for a new kind of deep brain stimulation – one without the electrodes and surgery.

In today’s post we will review the science behind deep brain stimulation and the research leading to non-invasive deep brain stimulation.


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Source: Youtube

In 2002, deep brain stimulation (or DBS) was granted approval for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The historical starting point for this technology, however, dates quite far back…

Further back than many of you may be thinking actually…

In his text “Compositiones medicamentorum” (46 AD), Scribonius Largo, head physician of the Roman emperor Claudius, first suggested using pulses of electricity to treat afflictions of the mind.

Caludius

Roman emperor Claudius. Source: Travelwithme

He proposed that the application of the electric ray (Torpedo nobiliana) on to the cranium could be a beneficial remedy for headaches (and no, I’m not kidding here – this was high tech at the time!).

800px-Atlantic_torpedo_(_Torpedo_nobiliana_)

Torpedo nobiliana. Source: Wikipedia

These Atlantic fish are known to be very capable of producing an electric discharge (approximately 200 volts). The shock is quite severe and painful – the fish get their name from the Latin “torpere,” meaning to be stiffened or paralysed, referring specifically to the response of those who try to pick these fish up – but the shock is not fatal.

Now, whether Largo was ever actually allowed to apply this treatment to the august ruler is unknown, and beyond the point. What matters here is that physicians have been considering and using this approach for a long time. And more recently, the application of it has become more refined.

What is deep brain stimulation?

The modern version of deep brain stimulation is a surgical procedure in which electrodes are implanted into the brain. It is used to treat a variety of debilitating symptoms, particularly those associated with Parkinson’s disease, such as tremor, rigidity, and walking problems.

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