At the end of each year, it is a useful practise to review the triumphs (and failures) of the past 12 months. It is an exercise of putting everything into perspective.
2017 has been an incredible year for Parkinson’s research.
And while I appreciate that statements like that will not bring much comfort to those living with the condition, it is still important to consider and appreciate what has been achieved over the last 12 months.
In this post, we will try to provide a summary of the Parkinson’s-related research that has taken place in 2017 (Be warned: this is a VERY long post!)
The number of research reports and clinical trial studies per year since 1817
As everyone in the Parkinson’s community is aware, in 2017 we were observing the 200th anniversary of the first description of the condition by James Parkinson (1817). But what a lot of people fail to appreciate is how little research was actually done on the condition during the first 180 years of that period.
The graphs above highlight the number of Parkinson’s-related research reports published (top graph) and the number of clinical study reports published (bottom graph) during each of the last 200 years (according to the online research search engine Pubmed – as determined by searching for the term “Parkinson’s“).
PLEASE NOTE, however, that of the approximately 97,000 “Parkinson’s“-related research reports published during the last 200 years, just under 74,000 of them have been published in the last 20 years.
That means that 3/4 of all the published research on Parkinson’s has been conducted in just the last 2 decades.
And a huge chunk of that (almost 10% – 7321 publications) has been done in 2017 only.
So what happened in 2017? Continue reading
In addition to looking at current Parkinson’s disease research on this website, I like to look at where technological advances are taking us with regards to future therapies.
In July of this year, I wrote about a new class of engineered viruses that could potentially allow us to treat conditions like Parkinson’s disease using a non-invasive, gene therapy approach (Click here to read that post). At the time I considered this technology way off at some point in the distant future. Blue sky research. “Let’s wait and see” – sort of thing.
So imagine my surprise when an Italian research group last weekend published a new research report in which they used this futurist technology to correct a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease. Suddenly the distant future is feeling not so ‘distant’.
In today’s post we will review and discuss the results, and look at what happens next.
Technological progress – looking inside the brain. Source: Digitial Trends
I have said several times in the past that the pace of Parkinson’s disease research at the moment is overwhelming.
So much is happening so quickly that it is quite simply difficult to keep up. Not just here on the blog, but also with regards to the ever increasing number of research articles in the “need to read” pile on my desk. It’s mad. It’s crazy. Just as I manage to digest something new from one area of research, two or three other publications pop up in different areas.
But it is the shear speed with which things are moving now in the field of Parkinson’s research that is really mind boggling!
Take for example the case of Squalamine.
In February of this year, researchers published an article outlining how a drug derived from the spiny dogfish could completely suppress the toxic effect of the Parkinson’s associated protein Alpha Synuclein (Click here to read that post).
The humble dogfish. Source: Discovery
And then in May (JUST 3 MONTHS LATER!!!), a biotech company called Enterin Inc. announced that they had just enrolled their first patient in the RASMET study: a Phase 1/2a randomised, controlled, multi-center clinical study evaluating a synthetic version of squalamine (called MSI-1436) in people with Parkinson’s disease. The study will enrol 50 patients over a 9-to-12-month period (Click here for the press release).
Wow! That is fast.
Yeah, I thought so too, but then this last weekend a group in Italy published new research that completely changed my ideas on the meaning of the word ‘fast’. Regular readers will recall that in July I discussed amazing new technology that may one day allow us to inject a virus into a person’s arm and then that virus will make it’s way up to the brain and only infect the cells that we want to have a treatment delivered to. This represents non-invasive (as no surgery is required), gene therapy (correcting a medical condition with the delivery of DNA rather than medication). This new study used the same virus we discussed in July.
This week a biotech company called Voyager Therapeutics announced the results of their ongoing phase Ib clinical trial. The trial is investigating a gene therapy approach for people with severe Parkinson’s disease.
Gene therapy is a technique that involves inserting new DNA into a cell using a virus. The DNA can help the cell to produce beneficial proteins that go on help to alleviate the motor features of Parkinson’s disease.
In today’s post we will discuss gene therapy, review the new results and consider what they mean for the Parkinson’s community.
On 25th August 2012, the Voyager 1 space craft became the first human-made object to exit our solar system.
After 35 years and 11 billion miles of travel, this explorer has finally left the heliosphere (which encompasses our solar system) and it has crossed into the a region of space called the heliosheath – the boundary area that separates our solar system from interstellar space. Next stop on the journey of Voyager 1 will be the Oort cloud, which it will reach in approximately 300 years and it will take the tiny craft about 30,000 years to pass through it.
Where is Voyager 1? Source: Tampabay
Where is Voyager actually going? Well, eventually it will pass within 1 light year of a star called AC +79 3888 (also known as Gliese 445), which lies 17.6 light-years from Earth. It will achieve this goal on a Tuesday afternoon in 40,000 years time.
Gliese 445 (circled). Source: Wikipedia
Remarkably, the Gliese 445 star itself is actually coming towards us. Rather rapidly as well. It is approaching with a current velocity of 119 km/sec – nearly 7 times as fast as Voyager 1 is travelling towards it (the current speed of the craft is 38,000 mph (61,000 km/h).
Interesting, but what does any of that have to do with Parkinson’s disease?
Well closer to home, another ‘Voyager’ is also ‘going boldly where no man has gone before’ (sort of).
In this post I review recently published research describing interesting new gene therapy tools.
“Gene therapy” involved using genetics, rather than medication to treat conditions like Parkinson’s disease. By replacing faulty sections of DNA (or genes) or providing supportive genes, doctors hope to better treat certain diseases.
While we have ample knowledge regarding how to correct or insert genes effectively, the problem has always been delivery: getting the new DNA into the right types of cells while avoiding all of the other cells.
Now, researchers at the California Institute of Technology may be on the verge of solving this issue with specially engineered viruses.
Gene therapy. Source: yourgenome
When you get sick, the usual solution is to visit your doctor. They will prescribe a medication for you to take, and then all things going well (fingers crossed/knock on wood) you will start to feel better. It is a rather simple and straight forward process, and it has largely worked well for most of us for quite some time.
As the overall population has started to live longer, however, we have become more and more exposed to chronic conditions which require long-term treatment regimes. The “long-term” aspect of this means that some people are regularly taking medication as part of their daily lives. In many cases, these medications are taken multiple times per day.
An example of this is Levodopa (also known as Sinemet or Madopar) which is the most common treatment for the chronic condition of Parkinson’s disease. When you swallow your Levodopa pill, it is broken down in the gut, absorbed through the wall of the intestines, transported to the brain via our blood system, where it is converted into the chemical dopamine – the chemical that is lost in Parkinson’s disease. This conversion of Levodopa increases the levels of dopamine in your brain, which helps to alleviate the motor issues associated with Parkinson’s disease.
Levodopa. Source: Drugs
This pill form of treating a disease is only a temporary solution though. People with Parkinson’s disease – like other chronic conditions – need to take multiple tablets of Levodopa every day to keep their motor features under control. And long term this approach can result in other complications, such as Levodopa-induced dyskinesias in the case of Parkinson’s.
Yeah, but is there a better approach?
Some researchers believe there is. But we are not quite there yet with the application of that approach. Let me explain:
In December, we highlighted the results of a phase 1 clinical trial for Parkinson’s disease being run by a company called Voyager Therapeutics (Click here for that post). In that post we also explained that the company is attempting to take a gene therapy product (VY-AADC01) to the clinic.
VY-AADC01 is a virus that is injected into a particular part of the brain (called the putamen), where it infects cells in that area and causes them to produce a lot of a particular protein, called Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (or AADC). AADC is required for turning L-dopa (one of the primary treatments for Parkinson’s disease) into dopamine – which helps to ease the motor features of the condition.
Today, while most people were focused on President Trump’s inauguration, Voyager Therapeutics provided an update on their ongoing trials. Specifically, the company reported an increase in viral infection coverage of the putamen was achieved by VY-AADC01 in their third group (‘cohort’) of subjects. They infected 42% of the putamen compared to 34% in group 2 and 21% in group 1.
In the press release, the company stated:
“The five patients enrolled in Cohort 3 received similar infusion volumes of VY-AADC01 compared to Cohort 2 (up to 900 µL per putamen), but three-fold higher vector genome concentrations, representing up to a three-fold higher total dose of up to 4.5×1012 vector genomes (vg) of VY-AADC01 compared to patients in Cohort 2 (1.5 × 1012 vg). Patients enrolled in Cohort 3 were similar in baseline characteristics to Cohort 1 and 2. The use of real-time, intra-operative MRI-guided delivery allowed the surgical teams to visualize the delivery of VY-AADC01 and continue to achieve greater average coverage of the putamen in Cohort 3 (42%) compared to Cohort 2 (34%) with similar infusion volumes and Cohort 1 (21%) with a lower infusion volume (Figure 1). The surgical procedure was successfully completed in all five patients. Infusions of VY-AADC01 have been well-tolerated with no vector-related serious adverse events (SAEs) or surgical complications in Cohort 3, and all five patients were discharged from the hospital within two days following surgery. The Phase 1b trial remains on track to deliver six-month safety, motor function, and biomarker data from Cohort 3, as well as longer-term safety and motor function data from Cohorts 1 and 2, in mid-2017.”
This update demonstrates that the company is proceeding with increased concentrations of their virus, resulting in a wider area of the putamen being infected and producing AADC. Whether this increased area of AADC producing cells results in significant improvements to motor features of Parkinson’s disease, we shall hopefully begin to find out later this year.
As always, watch this space.
Exciting new last week from a small biotech company called Voyager Therapeutics which is using gene therapy to treat neurodegenerative disease. Their primary product (VY-AADC01) is focused on Parkinson’s disease and the initial results look very positive.
The press release has indicates that the treatment is well tolerated and has beneficial effects on the subject’s motor functions. This last part is very interesting as the trial is being conducted on people with advanced Parkinson’s disease.
In today’s post, we’ll review the technology and what the results mean.
Gene therapy. Source: HuffingtonPost
In Parkinson’s disease, we often talk about the loss of the dopamine neurons in the midbrain as a cardinal feature of the disease. When people are diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease, they have usually lost approximately 50-60% of the dopamine neurons in an area of the brain called the substantia nigra.
The dark pigmented dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra are reduced in the Parkinson’s disease brain (right). Source: Memorangapp
The midbrain is – as the label suggests – in the middle of the brain, just above the brainstem (see image below). The substantia nigra dopamine neurons reside there.
Location of the substantia nigra in the midbrain. Source: Memorylossonline
The dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra generate dopamine and release that chemical in different areas of the brain. The primary regions of that release are areas of the brain called the putamen and the Caudate nucleus. The dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra have long projections (or axons) that extend a long way across the brain to the putamen and caudate nucleus, so that dopamine can be released there.
The projections of the substantia nigra dopamine neurons. Source: MyBrainNotes
In Parkinson’s disease, these ‘axon’ extensions that project to the putamen and caudate nucleus gradually disappear as the dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra are lost. When one looks at brain sections of the putamen after the axons have been labelled with a dark staining technique, this reduction in axons is very apparent over time, especially when compared to a healthy control brain.
The putamen in Parkinson’s disease (across time). Source: Brain
Previously we have discussed replacing the loss dopamine by transplanting dopamine producing cells into the putamen (click here to read that post), but some researchers now believe that this is not necessary. Instead they have proposed using gene therapy for Parkinson’s disease.
What is gene therapy?
The gene therapy involves inducing cells to produce proteins that they usually do not. This is usually done using genetically modified viruses which have had all the disease causing component removed, allowing us to use the virus as an efficient delivery system. Viruses by their very nature are very good at infecting cells, so if we remove the disease causing components, what is left is a very effective delivery system. Taking this approach one step further, we could next take genes involved with dopamine synthesis and insert them into our empty virus. By then injecting this virus into the brain, we could produce dopamine in any infected cells (it’s slightly more complicated than that, but you get the basic idea).
Gene therapy for Parkinson’s disease. Source: Wiki.Epfl
This approach demonstrated amazing results in preclinical studies in the lab, but the transition to the clinic has not been easy (click here for a good review of the field).
What has been done in the clinic for gene therapy and Parkinson’s disease?
The first clinical attempt at gene therapy for Parkinson’s disease involved injecting a virus containing a gene called glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), which is an enzyme involved in the production of a chemical called GABA. The virus was injected into an area of the brain called the subthalamic nucleus, which becomes over-active in Parkinson’s disease. By ectopically producing GAD in the subthalamic nucleus, researchers were able to reduce the level of activity (this is similar to deep brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease which modulates the activity of the subthalamic nucleus). The clinical trials for GAD produced modest results. The virus was well tolerated, but the clinical effect was limited.
Another clinical trial attempted to cause cells in the putamen to produce a chemical called neurturin (which is very similar to GDNF – we have previously written about GDNF, click here to read that post). The goal of the study was to prove neuroprotection and regeneration to the remaining dopamine neurons, by releasing neurturin in the putamen. Subjects were injected in the putamen with the virus and then the participants were followed for 15 months. Unfortunately, this study failed to demonstrate any meaningful improvement in subjects with Parkinson’s disease.
So what were the results of the trial?
Voyager Therapeutics‘s gene therapy product, VY-AADC01 is an adeno associated virus that carries a gene called Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (or AADC).
AAV Viruses. Source: HuffingtonPost
Yeah, I know: what is AADC?
AADC is the enzyme that converts L-dopa into dopamine. L-dopa can be naturally produced in the brain from Tyrosine that is absorbed from the blood. It is also the basic component of many treatments for Parkinson’s disease.
The production of dopamine. Source: Slideplayer
By injecting VY-AADC01 into the putamen of people with advanced Parkinson’s disease, Voyager is hoping to alleviate the motor features of the condition by allowing the brain to produce a constant supply of dopamine in the exact location that is missing the dopamine (remember, the putamen is where dopamine is released). This approach will not cure the disease, but it may make life a lot easier for those affected by it.
The phase 1b clinical trial was designed to assess whether the virus had any negative side effects in humans. After the subjects were injected in the brain with VY-AADC01, they were assessed at six and twelve months after the surgery. The results suggest that the virus was well tolerated and resulted in increased AADC enzyme activity, enhanced response to L-dopa treatment, and clinically meaningful improvements in various measures of patients’ motor function (44% improvement in ‘off medication’ measures and 55% improvement in ‘on medication’ measures).
The company currently has 2 groups of subjects injected with the virus (two different concentrations) and they are looking to have a third group injected in early 2017. Phase 2 trials are planned to begin in late 2017.
What does it all mean?
They are also interesting results because the subjects involved in the study all have advanced Parkinson’s disease (the average time since diagnosis in the subject was 10 years). So it is very positive news to see beneficial effects in later stage subjects.
Our ability to delivery of genes to different locations is a symbol of how far we have come with our understanding of biology. The fact that this knowledge is now having a positive impact in the medical world is very exciting. Gene therapy is one treatment approach that we here at SoPD are very excited about and watching very closely.
The banner for today’s post was sourced from Voyager Therapeutics
In 1991, Leu-Fen Lin and Frank Collins – both research scientists at a small biotech company in Boulder, Colorado – isolated a protein that was going to have an enormous impact on experimental therapeutic approaches for Parkinson’s disease over the next two decades. The company was called Synergen, and the protein they discovered was glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor, or GDNF.
The structure of GDNF. Source: Wikipedia
A great deal has been written about GDNF and Parkinson’s disease (there are some very good books on the story of the development of GDNF as a drug), here we will provide an overview and look at what is currently happening.
So what is GDNF?
Glial cells are the support cells in the brain. From the Greek γλία and γλοία meaning “glue”, glial cells make up more than 50% percentage of the total number of cells in the brain – though this ratio can vary across different regions.
Large neurons supported by smaller glial cells. Source: Scientific Brains
Glials cells look after the ‘work horses’ – the neurons – by maintaining the environment surrounding the neurons and supplying them with supportive chemicals, called neurotrophic factors (neurotrophic = Greek: neuron – nerve; trophikós – pertaining to food/to feed). There are many types of neurotrophic factors, some having more beneficial effects on certain types of neurons and not other. GDNF is one of these neurotrophic factors. It was isolated from a cell culture of rat glial cells (hence the name: glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor), and what became clear very quickly after it’s discovery was that it dramatically revived dying dopamine neurons (the cells classically affected in Parkinson’s disease). Leu-Fen Lin and Frank Collins’s initial results were astounding and they were published in 1993. Many studies in animal models of Parkinson’s disease followed and in almost all of those studies the results were amazing (here is a good review of the early literature).
GDNF is a member of a larger family of neurotrophic factors and three other members of that family (called neurturin, persephin, and artemin – sounds like the Three Musketeers!) have also demonstrated positive effects on dying dopamine neurons. The positive/neuroprotective effect works via a series of receptors on the surface of cells. There a receptors that are specific for each of the GDNF family members discussed above:
The GDNF family. Source: Nature
And they each exert their positive affect in combination with a protein called ret proto-oncogene (RET). RET is a receptor tyrosine kinase, which is a cell-surface molecule that initiates signals inside the cell resulting in cell growth and survival. Dopamine neurons have most of these receptors and a lot of RET.
What has happened with GDNF in the clinic?
Given the results of the initial studies with GDNF (and its family members), clinical studies/trials were set up to test if similar effects would be seen in humans.
The very first clinical trial pumped GDNF into the fluid surrounding the brain, but the drug did not penetrate very deep into the brain and had limited effect. One side effect of the treatment was a hyper-sensitivity to pain (called hyperalgesia) – patients literally couldn’t tolerate the clothes touching their bodies.
This initial failure gave rise to another clinical study at the Frenchay Hospital in Bristol (UK) in which GDNF was released inside the brain, in an area called the striatum. Tiny plastic tubes were implanted in the brain allowing for the GDNF to be pumped in.
GDNF was pumped into the striatum (green area). Source: Bankiewicz lab
Although the number of subjects in the study was very small (only 5 people with Parkinson’s), the results of that particular study were simply amazing.
Title: Direct brain infusion of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in Parkinson disease.
Authors: Gill SS, Patel NK, Hotton GR, O’Sullivan K, McCarter R, Bunnage M, Brooks DJ, Svendsen CN, Heywood P.
Journal: Nat Med. 2003 May;9(5):589-95.
The researchers reported that after just one year of GDNF treatment, there was:
- a 39% improvement in the off-medication motor ability (according to the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS))
- a 61% improvement in how subjects perceived their ability to go about daily activities.
- a 64% reduction in medication-induced dyskinesias (and they were not observed off medication)
- no serious clinical side effects
Importantly, the researchers conducted brain imaging studies on the subjects and a 28% increase in striatum dopamine storage after 18 months.
And that study was followed up by an outcome report two years later, which had similar results.
Title: Intraputamenal infusion of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in PD: a two-year outcome study.
Authors: Patel NK, Bunnage M, Plaha P, Svendsen CN, Heywood P, Gill SS.
Journal: Ann Neurol. 2005 Feb;57(2):298-302.
And then the researchers published a case study of one patient, suggesting that the positive effects of GDNF were still having an impact 3 years after the drug had stopped being delivered:
Title: Benefits of putaminal GDNF infusion in Parkinson disease are maintained after GDNF cessation.
Authors: Patel NK, Pavese N, Javed S, Hotton GR, Brooks DJ, Gill SS.
Journal: Neurology. 2013 Sep 24;81(13):1176-8.
There were two issues with this initial GDNF pump study however:
- The trial was open label. Both the subjects taking part and the physicians running the study knew who was getting the drug. The study was not blind.
- A larger double blind study did not find the same results.
The Amgen “Double-Blind” Trial
In 2003, based on the Bristol study results, the pharmaceutical company Amgen (which owned GDNF) initiated a double blind clinical trial for GDNF with 34 patients. Being double blind, both the researchers and the participants did not know who was getting GDNF or a control treatment. The procedure used to pump the GDNF into the brain was slightly different to that used in the Bristol study, and some have suggested that this may have contributed to the outcome of this study.
On 1st July 2004, Amgen announced that its clinical trial testing the efficacy of GDNF in treating advanced Parkinson’s had failed to demonstrate any clinical improvement after six months of use. Later that year (in September), Amgen halted the study completely citing two reasons:
- Pre-clinical data from non-human primates that had been treated in the highest dosage group for six months (followed by a three-month washout period) indicated a significant loss of neurons in an area of the brain called the cerebellum (which is involved in coordinating movement)
- They had detected “neutralizing antibodies” in two of the study participants.
The former was strange as it had never been detected in any other animal models previously reported, but the detection of antibodies was a more serious issue. Antibodies are made by cells to defend the body against foreign material. If the body begins to produce antibodies against GDNF, the immune system would clear the body of the GDNF drug, but also the body’s own natural supply of GDNF. The consequences of this are unknown, so Amgen decided to pull the plug on the trial.
What followed was a ugly chapter in the story of GDNF. Amgen refused to allow their study participants to continue to use GDNF when they requested it on compassion reasons. Lawyers then got involved (two lawsuits in 2005), but the judges decided in favour of Amgen.
There are many researchers around the world who still believe that GDNF represents an important treatment for Parkinson’s disease, and this has given rise to further clinical trials.
What is happening at the moment?
Currently there are several GDNF-based clinical trials being conducted. These trials have focused on three methods of delivery into the brain (specifically the striatum, which is the area of the brain where the most dopamine is released):
- Gene Therapy (GT)
- Encapsulated genetically modified cells (ECB)
- Pump delivery
A section of human brain demonstrating the different methods
for the delivery of GDNF to the striatum. Source: EPFL
The gene therapy (GT) trials have used genetically modified viruses to deliver the GDNF family members. One of the main GT trials involved a virus that was modified so that it produced large amounts of neurturin. Subjects were injected in the brain (specifically the striatum) and then the study participants were followed for 15 months. Unfortunately, this study failed to demonstrate any meaningful improvement in subjects with Parkinson’s disease.
The Encapsulated genetically modified cells (ECB) approach for the delivery of GDNF has been developed by company called NSgene and the trial currently on-going and we are waiting to hear the results of this study.
And finally, a new pump clinical trial for GDNF trial being run in Bristol (UK). The trial is being run by a company called MedGenesis (and funded by ParkinsonsUK and the CurePDTrust). The research team in Bristol have recruited 36 people with Parkinson’s disease to take part in their 9-month trial.
Dr Stephen Gill – Professor in Neurosurgery at University of Bristol – who conducting the current GDNF-pump study
This new trial should definitively tell us if there is a future for GDNF in Parkinson’s disease. The results of the study are expected at the end of 2016.
Reasons why GDNF may not work
While we do not want to dampen any optimism regarding GDNF, we believe that it is important to supply all points of view and as much information as possible. That said, in 2012, researchers in Sweden discovered that the GDNF neuroprotective effect is blocked in cells over-expressing alpha-synuclein – the protein that clumps together in Parkinson’s disease. In agreement with this, they found that RET was also reduced in dopamine neurons in people with Parkinson’s disease. Thus, it may be that people with Parkinson’s disease have a reduced ability to respond to GDNF.
Title: α-Synuclein-induced down-regulation of Nurr1 disrupts GDNF signaling in nigral dopamine neurons.
Authors: Decressac M, Kadkhodaei B, Mattsson B, Laguna A, Perlmann T, Björklund A.
Journal: Sci Transl Med. 2012 Dec 5;4(163):163ra156.
Luckily, the Swedish researchers also found that another protein, called Nurr1, could rescue this reduction in GDNF response. And there is now a lot of research being conducted to investigate the positive effects of GDNF and Nurr1 in combination.
We will continue to follow this area and report any new findings as they come to hand.